Unit 12 Discussion Impulsivity and Compulsivity. 800w. 4 references. Due 11-13-23.
1. Please describe the role of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in the development or continuation of impulsive/compulsive behaviors.
2. Please provide two examples of current research on interventions to reduce or eliminate compulsive/impulsive behavior related to addiction.
3. Summarize the following article “Behavioral Functions of the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System: an Affective Neuroethological Perspective” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2238694/
Responses need to address all components of the question, demonstrate critical thinking and analysis and include peer-reviewed journal evidence to support the student’s position.
Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with in-text citations and corresponding references in APA format.
1. Role of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in the development or continuation of impulsive/compulsive behaviors. The mesolimbic pathway is the dopamine pathway. This pathway extends from the “VTA of the brainstem (mesencephalon) to the nucleus accumbens in the ventral striatum which is part of the limbic system (Stahl, 2021, p. 90). This pathway is important as it is involved in the regulating motivation and reward. Hyperactivity of the mesolimbic pathway called hyperdopaminergia, is significant in the display of positive symptoms seen in psychosis, schizophrenia, and depression and can result in impulse, agitation, hostile, and aggressive symptoms. In addition, the hyperactivity of the DA pathway can be because of various psychostimulants. Such as, cocaine and methamphetamine (Stahl, 2021, p.90). In terms of impulsivity and compulsivity Stahl (2020, p.541) states, “Impulsivity can be thought of as the inability to stop the initiation of actions and involves a brain circuit centered on the ventral striatum, linked to the thalamus (T), to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), and to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Compulsivity can be thought of as the inability to terminate ongoing actions and hypothetically is centered on a different brain circuit, namely the dorsal striatum, thalamus (T), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Impulsive acts such as drug use, gambling, and obesity can eventually become compulsive due to neuroplastic changes that engage the dorsal habit system and theoretically cause impulses in the ventral loop to migrate to the dorsal loop.” 2. Two examples of current research on interventions to reduce or eliminate compulsive/impulsive behavior related to addiction. According to Hartney (2021), compulsions are considered obsessions with repeated thoughts that create a feeling of distress (Hartley, 2021). The person’s behavior reduces anxiety and fear. An example to consider is obsessive compulsive disorder. In this disorder, the obsession revolves around the need to wash their hands. In the case of addiction, the desire to use will far outweigh the reality that there may be negative consequences. Such as financial strains, health issues, social problems, legal problems and/or decreased self-esteem (Hartney, 2021). Hartney (2021), suggests for treatment of the OCD behavior should include antidepressant medications like serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). These medications may be augmented with antipsychotics at the discretion of the provider. In terms of impulsivity, Kozak and her colleagues (2018) denote there are strong overlaps in the neural circuitry and functional mechanisms between impulsivity traits and addiction, which has directed treatment approaches. Therefore, it has been recommended, SUD treatment should include subjective and objective data and target the pharmacological, behavioral, and neurophysiological areas to individualize the patient’s care (Kozak et al., 2018). This study source was downloaded by 100000769192234 from CourseHero.com on 10-22-2023 17:11:39 GMT -05:00 https://www.coursehero.com/file/139195954/Discussion-12-ImpulsivityCompulsivitydocx/ For example: Alcohol use disorder – Naltrexone, Aripiprazole, and Topiramate were successful in decreasing impulsivity behaviors and Problem gambling – paroxetine was found to be successful in impulsivity (Kozak et al., 2018). References: Hartney, E. (2021). The difference between an addiction and a compulsion. Retrieved on March 30, 2022, from https://www.verywellmind.com/the-difference-between-an-addiction-and-acompulsion-22240 Kozak, K., Lucatch, A. M., Lowe, D., Balodis, I. M., MacKillop, J., & George, T. P. (2019). The neurobiology of impulsivity and substance use disorders: implications for treatment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1451(1), 71–91. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13977 Stahl, S. M. (2021). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical application (5th ed.). p. 90 & 54, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.